Neurosurgery is also called neurological surgery. It is concerned with prevention, diagnosis, a surgical treatment which affects any part of the nervous system which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and extra cerebrovascular system. A neurosurgeon is a medical specialist who treats them.
The main divisions in neurosurgery are vascular neurosurgery, endovascular neurosurgery, stereotactic neurosurgery, functional neurosurgery, epilepsy neurosurgery, oncological neurosurgery, skull base neurosurgery, spinal neurosurgery, peripheral nerve surgery and pediatric neurosurgery. To diagnose and operative neurosurgery, neuroradiology plays a key role. The various neuroradiology methods used are computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), stereotactic radiosurgery and magnet encephalography (MEG).
Neuropathology is a specialty which studies the pathology emphases on the disease of the brain, spinal cord, and neural tissue. This includes the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Common applications of neuropathology include the study of Parkinson’s disease, dementia, mitochondria disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disorders that have neural problems in the brain or spinal cord.The field of anaesthesiology which emphases on neurosurgery is Neuroanesthesia. Anaesthesia is not used during the middle of an awake brain surgery. Awake brain surgery is when the patient is conscious for the middle of the procedure and sedated for the beginning and end.
In India, the Neurological society of India (NSI) is the main body which represents the neuroscientists. This society publishes the bi – monthly journal Neurology India. It was founded by 1951 by Jacob Chandy, S. T. Narasimhan, Balasubramaniam and Baldev Singh. It covers all the aspects of neurology, including neurosurgery, neuropsychiatry, neuropathology, neuro oncology and neuro pharmaceutics. It also gives Lifetime achievement awards to the members of the society who are above the age of 75. The best neurosurgeon in India also represents this group.
The various conditions treated by neurosurgeons include
- Meningitis and other central nervous system infections including abscesses
- Head trauma
- Spinal disc herniation
- Cervical spinal stenosis and Lumbar spinal stenosis
- Spinal cord trauma
- Traumatic damages of peripheral nerves
- Tumors of the backbone, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
- Intracerebral haemorrhage
- Drug resistant epilepsy
- Movement disorders such as ablative surgery and deep brain stimulation surgery
- Moyamoya disease
- Vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord
- Forms of intractable psychiatric disorders
- Intractable pain of cancer and peripheral nerve pain
To be a neurosurgeon in India the qualifications are as follow – Master of Surgery (M.S.) General Surgery, Master of Chirurgical (M.Ch) Neurosurgery, Diplomate of National Board (DNB/ Fellowship of Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS)/ Membership of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons (MRCS) from International Colleges and Hospitals, InternationalFellowship and Training Programs, Publications and Paper Presentations in Reputed Scientific and Medical Journals and Wide Clinical Experience. Top 10 neurosurgeon doctor in India are involved in Stereotactic Radiosurgery with AVM treatment and Radiation Oncologists for tumor. Radio surgical methods such as a Cyber knife and Gamma knife are also used. They have started to utilise endovascular image guided procedures for treatment of aneurysms, carotid stenosis, spinal malformations and vasospasms. Some neurosurgeons perform brain surgeries, spinal problems, lower back disorders, etc.